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Iturika ry’i Beirut: Ni hehe handi ku isi habitse ’ammonium nitrate’?

Tuesday 11 August 2020, by : MUTESI Scovia
    Yasomwe na

Nyuma yaho ikinyabutabire cya ’nitrate d’ammonium’ (ammonium nitrate) giturikiye kikangiza byinshi ku cyambu cy’i Beirut muri Liban, hari impungenge ku buryo kibitsemo mu bice bitandukanye ku isi.

Nkuko tubicyesha BBC Iki kinyabutabire - gifite ikirango (formule/formula) cya NH₄NO₃ - gikoreshwa cyane ku isi nk’ifumbire cyangwa mu gukora intambi (urutambi) zifashishwa mu bucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro.

Ariko hari amategeko akaze agenga aho gishobora kubikwa ndetse no ku gihe gishobora kuhamara.
Kandi aho kibitse akenshi hakunze kugirwa ibanga kubera ko gifite ubushobozi bwo gukorwamo ibisasu.

Ubuhinde
Mu gihe cy’imyaka itanu, hafi toni 740 za ’nitrate d’ammonium’ zari zibitse muri kontineri 37, ziri mu ntera ya metero 700 uvuye ahatuwe n’abantu, kuri kilometero hafi 20 hanze y’umujyi wa Chennai, umwe mu mijyi ikomeye y’Ubuhinde.

Icyo gihe abategetsi bo muri leta ya Tamil Nadu yo mu majyepfo y’Ubuhinde uwo mujyi uherereyemo, bari mu rubanza na kompanyi yari yinjije icyo kinyabutabire ikivanye muri Koreya y’epfo mu mwaka wa 2015, ivuga ko ari icyo gukoresha mu buhinzi.

Uwo muzigo wa ’nitrate d’ammonium’ wimwe uruhushya rwo kuri gasutamo (mu buyobozi bw’ibicuruzwa byinjira mu gihugu).

Nuko iperereza ritahura ko iyo kompanyi yari:

yarabonye icyo kinyabutabire ikoresheje uruhushya rwataye agaciro
imaze igihe ikigurisha "ku bantu ku giti cyabo batazwi" ndetse no kuri kompanyi zahoze zikora ubucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro
Igice gito cy’uwo muzigo cyarajugunywe nyuma yo kwangizwa n’imyuzure mu mwaka wa 2015.

Naho toni 697 zisigaye ubu zamaze gutezwa cyamunara ndetse zijyanwa muri leta bihana imbibi ya Telangana.

,
Icyambu cya Beirut nyuma yo guturika gutewe na ’nitrate d’ammonium’

Yemen
Umucamanza mukuru wo mu gihugu cya Yemen kimaze igihe kiri mu ntambara, yategetse ko hakorwa iperereza ku makuru yo mu bitangazamakuru avuga ko hari kontineri zirenga 100 zirimo ’nitrate d’ammonium’ zibitse ku cyambu cya Aden mu majyepfo y’igihugu.

Ayo makuru avuga ko icyo kinyabutabire hashize imyaka itatu cyinjijwe mu gihugu, kiba cyarafashwe n’ingabo ziyobowe na Arabie Saoudite zishyigikiye leta ya Yemen yemewe n’umuryango w’abibumbye.

Tariq Salam, Guverineri w’umujyi wa Aden, yagize ati:

"Ingabo zagabwe kuri iki cyambu zifite uruhare mu kubika uyu muzigo kabutindi, bigereranywa ko ugizwe na toni 4,900 za ’nitrate d’ammonium’ zibitse muri kontineri 130 zo mu bwato".

Ariko ikigo cya leta gishinzwe ibyambu cyavuze ko ahubwo izo kontineri ziri gukoreshwa mu kubika "urée ya karemano, ikoreshwa mu buhinzi nk’ifumbire".

Icyo kigo gishinzwe ibyambu cyongeyeho kiti: "Ntabwo ari igiturika cyangwa ikintu gifite ubumara [radioactive]".

"Kandi ntabwo bibujijwe kukibika [icyo kinyabutabire]".

Iraq
Leta ya Iraq yategetse ko hakorwa igenzurwa ry’ako kanya ku bishobora guteza ibyago bibitse ku byambu no ku bibuga by’indege, ndetse isanga ko ’nitrate d’ammonium’ yari imaze igihe ibitse ku kibuga mpuzamahanga cy’indege cy’i Baghdad.

Ku itariki ya 9 y’uku kwezi kwa munani, umutegetsi wo mu gisirikare cya Iraq yanditse ku rubuga rwa Twitter ati:

"Ubuyobozi bukuru bw’iby’ubwubatsi muri minisiteri y’ingabo ya Iraq...bwatwaye mu mutekano ibintu kabutindi ku rwego rwo hejuru bubikura mu gice cy’imizigo y’indege cyo ku kibuga cy’indege cya Baghdad... bubijyana aho byerekezaga, ku bubiko bw’ubuyobozi bw’ubwubatsi mu gisirikare".

Australia
Na mbere yuko habaho iturika rikomeye i Beirut, abantu bo mu mujyi wa Newcastle wo muri leta ya New South Wales muri Australia bari bamaze igihe basaba abategetsi ko ububiko bugari bwa ’nitrate d’ammonium’ buri kuri 3Km uvuye rwagati muri uwo mujyi buhavanwa cyangwa bukagabanywa.

Umuzigo wa ’nitrate d’ammonium’ wafashwe n’abategetsi bo kuri gasutamo bo muri Indonesia mu mwaka wa 2016

Ariko kompanyi Orica, igemurira intambi urwego rw’ubucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro, yavuze ko icyo kinyabutabire kibitse mu buryo butanga umutekano.

Yongeyeho ko ubwo bubiko "budakorwaho n’umuriro kandi bwubakiwe gusa ibintu bidashobora kugurumana".

Ndetse n’urwego rwo mu majyepfo ya Australia rugenzura uko umutekano wubahizwa - ruzwi nka SafeWork SA - rwavuze ko ’nitrate d’ammonium’ ibitse mu bubiko 170 bwagenzuwe bikomeye bwo muri ako karere.

Ibyambu byo mu Bwongereza
Iperereza ryaratangiye mu Bwongereza ku buryo ’nitrate d’ammonium’ ibitsemo ku cyambu kigari cyo mu karere ka Lincolnshire mu mujyi wa Immingham, ndetse n’ahandi hantu ho mu karere ka Humber.

Ikigo Associated British Ports (ABP) kigenzura ibyo byambu, cyavuze ko ibyambu byo mu Bwongereza bigomba gukurikiza amategeko akaze ndetse bikagenzura ko icyo kinyabutabire kibitse kandi gikoreshwa mu mutekano.

Hagati aho, kompanyi Portico yo ku cyambu cy’i Portsmouth, yaretse ubusabe bwo gushaka kubika ’nitrate d’ammonium’, ivuga ko iki kinyabutabire kitazagera aho ikorera.

Nubwo iyi kompanyi yabitangaje hashize igihe gito habaye guturika gukomeye kw’i Beirut, yavuze ko ibikoze gusa ku mpamvu bwite zayo z’akazi.

Richard Brough, ukuriye ishyirahamwe mpuzamahanga rihuza ibikorwa byo kwita ku mizigo, yavuze ko ’nitrate d’ammonium’ "igenzurwa kuko ifatwa nk’ikinyabutabire cya kabutindi".

"Yo ubwayo, ni ikinyabutabire urebye kidateje ikibazo".

"Ariko aho ibera ikibazo ni iyo igize aho ihurira n’ikindi kintu, nk’urugero ibikomoka kuri peteroli".

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